Houston Regenerative Medicine

Methods Used in Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Methods Used in Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a treatment used to address low testosterone levels in individuals who experience symptoms that affect their daily life and health. Low testosterone can lead to various issues like decreased energy, mood changes, and reduced muscle mass. TRT helps by supplementing the body with testosterone to maintain normal levels, improving overall well-being and restoring the body’s ability to function as expected. This therapy is becoming increasingly important as more people recognize its benefits in managing symptoms associated with low testosterone, making it a valuable option for enhancing quality of life.

Overview of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

TRT is designed to treat men whose bodies do not produce enough testosterone. This therapy can improve overall health and well-being by addressing the symptoms and deficiencies associated with low testosterone levels.

Definition and Purpose of TRT

TRT involves the administration of testosterone through methods such as testosterone injections or topical gels. The purpose of this treatment is to help maintain normal testosterone levels, which are crucial for various bodily functions from maintaining muscle mass to regulating mood and energy levels.

Common Symptoms of Low Testosterone

Individuals with low testosterone might experience a range of symptoms that can impact their quality of life, including:

  • Decreased sex drive and erectile dysfunction, which affect sexual function.
  • Increased body fat and reduced muscle strength.
  • Diminished energy levels and mood changes.
  • Decreased sperm production, affecting fertility.

Criteria for Considering TRT

Doctors recommend considering TRT if there are consistent symptoms of low testosterone combined with blood tests showing levels of testosterone that are lower than normal. It’s important to also consider other health factors before starting TRT, such as blood pressure and overall health condition, to ensure the treatment is safe and appropriate.

Methods of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) can be administered in several different forms, each with its own set of procedures, benefits, and drawbacks. Here’s an overview of the various methods available:


Types of Injections:

  • Intramuscular injections: Injected directly into the muscles.
  • Subcutaneous injections: Injected into the fat layer beneath the skin.


  • How injections are administered: Typically done by a healthcare provider or self-administered at home.
  • Frequency and dosage: Usually given every 2 to 4 weeks, depending on the type and concentration of testosterone.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Quick increase in testosterone levels.
  • Potential discomfort and swelling at the injection site.

Gels and Creams

Application Methods:

  • How to apply: Gels and creams are rubbed onto the skin, typically on the shoulders, upper arms, or abdomen.
  • Common application sites: Shoulders and upper arms are preferred to avoid clothing rub-off.

Absorption and Effectiveness:

  • Absorbed through the skin, allowing testosterone to enter the bloodstream gradually.
  • Requires daily application to maintain stable testosterone levels.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Easy to use and apply daily.
  • Risk of transferring testosterone to others through skin contact.


Types of Patches:

  • Transdermal patches: Adhesive patches that release testosterone into the bloodstream through the skin.

Application Methods:

  • Where to place patches: Typically on the back, abdomen, upper arms, or thighs.
  • Frequency of patch changes: Changed daily to maintain consistent testosterone levels.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Provides a steady release of hormones.
  • Possible skin irritation at the patch site.

Oral Tablets

Types of Oral Testosterone:

  • Buccal tablets: Placed between the gum and lip.
  • Newly developed oral pills: Swallowed and processed through the digestive system.


  • How oral tablets are taken: Buccal tablets are placed in the mouth while pills are swallowed with water.
  • Frequency and dosage: Typically taken daily.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Convenience of oral administration.
  • Some older formulations may have adverse effects on the liver.


Types of Implants:

  • Subdermal testosterone pellets: Implanted under the skin, usually in the hip area.


  • How implants are inserted: A minor surgical procedure is performed under local anesthesia.
  • Duration of effectiveness: Can last for 3 to 6 months.

Benefits and Drawbacks:

  • Long-lasting hormone release, reducing the frequency of treatments.
  • Requires a surgical procedure for implantation, which might include minor discomfort and risk of infection.

Each method offers different advantages and may suit different lifestyles or medical needs, allowing for personalized treatment plans under professional medical guidance.

Comparing Methods of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

When choosing a testosterone replacement therapy, understanding the effectiveness, convenience, and potential side effects of each method is crucial. This helps ensure that the selected method aligns with the individual’s lifestyle, health condition, and treatment goals.


Different TRT methods vary in how quickly and effectively they can raise testosterone levels. Injections might offer a rapid increase in testosterone levels but require frequent doctor visits or learning self-injection techniques. Transdermal patches and gels provide a more consistent hormone level but need daily application. Oral tablets and implants offer convenience but may vary in duration of effectiveness, with implants lasting several months versus daily administration for tablets.


Convenience is a significant factor in choosing a TRT method. Patches and gels are simple to use but must be applied every day, which might be cumbersome for some. Injections provide longer-lasting effects but can be less convenient due to the need for periodic doctor appointments. Implants require the least frequent attention, yet the initial procedure might deter some patients.

Side Effects and Risks

Common side effects of TRT include skin irritation, fluctuations in mood and energy, and potential impacts on cardiovascular and liver health. Each method also carries specific risks, such as injection site reactions for injectables or transfer risks to others from gels.

Factors Influencing Choice of Method

Patient Preferences

Individual lifestyle, convenience preferences, and comfort with various application methods heavily influence the choice of TRT. Some may prefer the autonomy of managing their treatment at home with gels or patches, while others may prioritize less frequent maintenance with injections or implants.

Medical Considerations

Existing health conditions play a critical role in selecting an appropriate TRT method. For instance, patients with liver issues might avoid oral testosterone, while those with skin sensitivities may steer clear of patches. Doctor’s recommendations will also reflect the patient’s overall health profile, ensuring the chosen method provides the maximum benefit with minimal risk.

Choosing the right TRT method involves a balance of these factors, tailored to the individual’s specific needs and medical advice.


Testosterone replacement therapy serves as a critical solution for individuals experiencing low testosterone levels, which can significantly affect quality of life. By offering various methods of administration, TRT accommodates different lifestyles and medical needs, ensuring that each individual can find a suitable approach. 

Whether through injections, gels, patches, oral tablets, or implants, the therapy aims to restore normal testosterone levels, thereby alleviating symptoms related to low testosterone. Each method has its specifics in terms of effectiveness, convenience, and potential side effects, allowing for personalized treatment plans. 

Ultimately, the choice of TRT method is guided by a combination of patient preference, medical advice, and lifestyle considerations, striving to provide the most effective and least disruptive treatment.